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Timeline of Renaissance and Early Modern Figures and Events (1300-1600)

Statue of Desiderius Erasmus in Rotterdam, Netherlands

1304-21 Dante Alighieri, Divine Comedy
1304-74 Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca)
1314-75 Giovanni Boccaccio
1331-1406 Coluccio Salutati
1340-1400  Chaucer
1347-51 Black Death devastates Europe
1348-53  Boccaccio, Decameron
1350-1414 Manuel Chyrsoloras
c.1369-1444  Leonardo Bruni
1375 Salutati appointed Latin Secretary of Florence
1378 Great Schism begins
1380-1459 Bracciolini Poggio
1380-1400 Salutati, On the Secular and the Religious, On Fate and Fortune, On the Labors of Hercules
1396 Chrysoloras introduces Greek in Florence
1396-1459 Giannozzo Manetti
c.1400-68 Johannes Gutenberg
1401-64 Nicholas of Cusa
1402 Jan Hus becomes rector of the University of Prague
c.1403-72 Cardinal Bessarion
1404-72 Leon Battista Alberti
1405 Bruni, first translations of Plato
1407-57 Lorenzo Valla
1409 Council of Pisa
1414-18  Council of Constance
1415 Resumption of the 100-year war between England and France. French are defeated at the battle of Azincourt. Jan Hus is burned at the council of Constance
c.1415-87 Johannes Argyropulos
1416  Donatello, St. George
1417-35 Leonardi Bruni translates Aristotle's Politics
1418 First dated wood cutting in Europe (The Madonna of Brussels). End of the great papal schism 
1419-36 Hussite wars
1424-98 Cristoforo Landino
1427-52 The Azores become Portuguese property
1431 Joan of Arc burned at the stake for heresy by the Inquisition
1431-65 François Villon (French author of ballads)
1432 The altar of Gent by Hubert and Jan van Eycks
1433-99 Marsilio Ficino
1434 Cosimo de Medici becomes the ruler of the city of Florence. Nicholas of Cusa, De concordantia catholica. Filippo Brunelleschi, Completion of the cupola of the cathedral of Florence
1436 The 100-year war between England and France ends. First Portuguese settlements on the West African coast
1439 Lorenzo Valla, Dialogue on Free Will
1440 Friedrich III becomes King of Germany. Nicholas of Cusa, On Learned Ignorance
1441 Beginning of the Portuguese slave trade
1444 Cosimo de Medici establishes the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana in Florence
1444-46 Prokop Waldvogel teaches the art of artistic writing in Avignon
1444-48 Council of Basel
1444-1510 Sandro Botticelli
1445 Death of the poet Oswald of Wolkenstein
1446 Oldest dated copperplate engraving (Passion of Berlin)
1446-50 Johannes Gutenberg invents printing with movable type
1447 Accession of Pope Nikolaus V
1447-55 Pope Nikolaus V., donor of the Biblioteca Vaticana
1448-50  Lorenzo Valla, Notes on the New Testament
1450/1 Diplomatic visit of Nicholas of Cusa to Germany
c.1450-1518 Hieronymus Bosch
1451-1512  Amerigo Vespucci
1452 Giannozzo Manetti, On the Dignity and Excellence of Man. Leon Battista Alberti, On Architecture. Imperial coronation of Friedrich III
1452-54/55 Gutenberg prints his 42-line Bible in Mainz with a circulation of approximately 180 copies
1452-1519 Leonardo da Vinci
1453 Constantinople falls to Ottomans. Flight of numerous Greek scholars to Italy. Nicholas of Cusa, The Vision of God
1454 Gutenberg prints letters of indulgence in Mainz, the proceeds of which were meant to finance a crusade against the Turks
1454-93  Ermolao Barbaro
1455 Start of the War of the Roses between the houses of York and Lancaster in England. Bracciolini Poggio, On the Misery of the Human Condition.
1459 Establishment of the Platonic Academy in Florence under Cosimo de Medici. Establishment of the University of Basel
c.1460 Johannes Müller Regiomontanus develops the decimal fraction calculation
c.1460-1523 Leone Ebreo
1462 Mainz loses its status as a free city and becomes an archiepiscopal town
1462-8 Marsilio Ficino translating Plato
1462-1521 Piero di Cosimo
1462-1525 Pietro Pompanazzi
1463-94 Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
1465-1510 Paul Cortese
1466 First German bible is printed in Strasbourg by Johannes Mentelin
1467 Arnold Pannartz and Konrad Sweynheym establish in Subiaco the first printing shop in Italy
1468-1534 Thomas de Vio Cajetan
1469 Cardinal Bessarion, Against Plato's Opponent
1469-1527 Niccoló Machiavelli
1469-1536 Desiderius Erasmus
1470 Leon Battista Alberti builds façade of S. Maria Novella, Florence
c.1470-1511 Tiberio Baccillieri
1471 Portuguese cross the equator for the first time
1471-1528 Albrecht Dürer
1473 Lorenzo de Medici, Altercazione. Start of the construction of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. The Augsburg banking house of Fugger establishes business relations with the Habsburg family.
1473-1543 Nicholaus Copernicus
1474 Sandro Botticelli, The Spring
1475 Cristoforo Landino, On True Nobility 
1475-1564 Michelangelo
1477 Marsilio Ficino, Five Keys of Platonic Wisdom, On the Christian Religion. Caxton prints Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales. Establishment of the University of Mainz by archbishop Diether of Isenburg. Death of Karl the Brave of Burgundy causes long-lasting struggle surrounding the Burgundy inheritance between France and the house of Habsburg
1478 Sandro Botticelli, Primavera
1478-1529 Baldassare Castiglione
1478-1535 Sir Thomas More
1480-1546 Francesco de Vitoria
c.1480-1521 Ferdinand Magellan
1481 Introduction of the inquisition in Spain by Thomas de Torquemada
1481-83 Leonardo da Vinci,  Adoration of the Magi, Virgin of the Rocks
1483-1520 Raphael
1483-1536 Martin Luther
c.1485-1576 Titian
1486 Pico della Mirandola, On the Dignity of Man. Rosselli, Miracle of the Sacrament.
1487 Marsilio Ficino, Platonic Theology, Concerning the Immortality of the Soul.
1489 Pico della Mirandola, Heptaplus. Marsilio Ficino, On the Threefold Life.
1491 Pico della Mirandola, On Being and the One. Disputation between Pico and Cardinal Cajetan.
1491-1556 Ignatius of Loyola 
1492 Columbus crosses the Atlantic. Marsilio Ficino, Latin translation of Plotinus. Leonardo da Vinci draws a flight machine. Granada falls to Spanish. Jews are driven out of Spain. First globe constructed by Martin Behaim in Nuremberg.
1492-1553  Ludovicus Vives
1493-1541 Paracelsus
1494 Pico della Mirandola, Disputations on Predictive Astrology. Fall of the Medici in Florence. Sebastian Brant, Ship of Fools. First occurrence of Syphilis in Europe.
1494-5 Charles VIII of France invades Italy
1494-1553 François Rabelais
1495 Imperial parliament of Worms
1495-7 Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper
1497/98 Giovanni Caboto reaches North America under British orders
1497-1560 Philipp Melanchthon
1498 Execution of Savonarola. Vasco da Gamma sails around the Cape of Good Hope and reaches India by sea. Wood carvings cycle Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. Machiavelli appointed Secretary of Florence (until 1512).
1499 Erasmus' first visit to England; meets More and Colet. Swiss confederates separate from the German Empire.
1500 Birth of Karl the Fifth. The Portuguese sailor Pedro Caba reaches Brazil. Aldus founds Venice Academy for the study of Greek; invents italic type.
1501-4 Michelangelo, David
1501-76 Girolamo Cardano
1503 Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa. Erasmus, first publication of the Enchiridion.
1504 Sannazaro, Arcadia
1505 Bembo, Gli asolani
1505-7 Albrecht Dürer in Italy
1506 Bramante begins to rebuild St. Peter's
1508-12 Michelangelo, frescoes for the Sistine Chapel
1509 Desiderius Erasmus writes In Praise of Folly at home of Thomas More
1509-11 Raphael, frescoes for the Stanza della Segnatura in the Vatican
1509-1564 John Calvin
1509-88 Bernardino Telesio
1510 Bovillus, Liber de sapiente
c.1510-72 John Knox
1511 Desiderius Erasmus, In Praise of Folly
1511-74 Giorgio Vasari
1513 Niccoló Machiavelli, The Prince
1515-72 Peter Ramus
1516 Thomas More, Utopia. Pietro Pompanazzi, On the Immortality of the Soul. Ariosto, Orlando furioso. Raphael, Sistine Madonna. Desiderius Erasmus, Education of a Christian Prince (for Charles V).
1517 Martin Luther, 95 Theses
1518 Titian, The Assumption of the Virgin
1519-21 Ferdinand Magellan circumnavigates the world
1520 Pietro Pomponazzi, On Fate, Free Will and Predestination. Niccoló Machiavelli, Art of War
1524 Desiderius Erasmus, On the Freedom of the Will
1525 Equicola, On the Nature of Love
1528 Baldassare Castiglione, The Courtier
1529-97 Francesco Patrizi
1530 Correggio, Adoration of the Shepherds. Bembo, Rime.
1532 François Rabelais, Pantagruel
1533-92 Michel de Montaigne
1534 Ignatius of Loyola founds Jesuit order. Henry VIII  founds Anglican church
1534-41 Michelangelo, Last Judgment
1535 Thomas More executed for denying Henry VIII's headship of English church. Leone Ebreo, Dialogues on Love
1535-1600 Luis de Molina
1536 John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion
1541-1603 Pierre Charron 
1543 Nicholaus Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the Spheres
1545 Girolamo Cardano, Ars magna
1545-63 Council of Trent
1546 François Rabelais, Tiers livre
1547 Michelangelo appointed chief architect of St. Peter's
1547-1616 Miguel de Cervantes
1548-1607 Francisco Suarez
1548-1600 Giordano Bruno
1550 Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Painters
1550/1-1623 Francisco Sanches
1555 Peter Ramus, Dialectiqué (first philosophical treatise in French)
1557 Girolamo Cardano, On the Variety of Things
1558 Queen Elizabeth I crowned
1560 John Knox founds Presbyterian church
1561-1626 Francis Bacon
1562 Scève, Microcosme
1564-1642 Galileo Galilei
1564-1616 William Shakespeare
1568-1639 Tommaso Campanella
1570 Palladio, Treatise on Architecture
1571-1630 Johnannes Kepler
1572 St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
1575-1624 Jakob Böhme
1577-1640 Peter Paul Rubens
1580 Michel de Montaigne, Essays (Books 1-2)
1585 Giordano Bruno, Degli heroici furori
1588 Michel de Montaigne, Essays (Book 3)
1588-1679 Thomas Hobbes
1590 Janssen invents first microscope
1592-1655 Pierre Gassendi
1596-1650 René Descartes
1598 Edict of Nantes issued by Henry IV
1600 Giordano Bruno accused of heresy and burned at the stake by the Inquisition
c.1600 Shakespeare writes Hamlet