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PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION
EXAM #2 STUDY REVIEW
Exam Date: 11/19/02

 

 

 I) CONTENT

A. Cosmological Argument
A priori/a posteriori arguments
Basic logical structure of any argument
Versions: change, causality, contingency
St Thomas Aquinas (3 versions)
Cosmological argument from contingency
Principle of sufficient reason (Leibniz)
Infinite regress and logical circularity
Necessity/contingency
God postulated as metaphysical necessity; explanatory hypothesis
Observable premises/nonobservable conclusion
Logical fallacy of composition: parts/whole, members/class
Russell-Copleston debate
Brute fact
Explanatory models: intentional/naturalistic
Naturalistic objections and alternatives
Theistic replies

B. Teleological Argument
A posteriori arguments in general
General features of world: design, order, harmony, and teleology
Basic structure and strategic progression of Paley’s analogical argument
Teleological/design arguments in general
Inductive argument: probability, empirical, a posteriori
Analogical argumentation in general
Immediate/mediate inference distinction
Proportionate analogy
Inductive strength: resemblance, relevance
Effects/causes
Teleological system: adaptation of means to ends, etc.
Design/order distinction (Darwin)
Hume’s criticisms
Mechanistic model: universe as machine
Organic model: universe as living organism
Purposeful design/chance, random accident
Watch/universe analogy (Paley)
Hume’s Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion: Cleanthes, Philo, and Demea


II) FORMAT
1. 10 T/F questions (20 points)
2. 25 Multiple-choice questions (50 points)
3. 4 Short answer questions (20 points)
4. 1 Essay question (10 points)
5. Extra credit?


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