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LOGIC
FINAL EXAM STUDY REVIEW
Exam Date: 5/6/03

 

 

I) CONTENT

A. New Course Material

1. Fallacies in general
Etymology
General definition and characteristics
Form/content distinction
Argument form
Substitution instance
Types (formal and informal)
Reasons why fallacies are committed: deliberate intent, careless intellectual habits
General guidelines for detecting and avoiding fallacies: clarity, evidential relevance, unemotional mental maturity, justified suspicion, instinctive sense, recognizing complexity

2. Formal fallacies
Definition
Deductive arguments
Affirming the Consequent
Denying the Antecedent

3. Informal Fallacies (Relevance): definition, versions, strategies, techniques, methods, and characteristics of informal fallacies; identification of examples.

Fallacies of Relevance (6 types, 10 fallacies): general definition, emotional appeal, deception

1. Appeal to force (argumentum ad baculum)
2. Appeal to pity (argumentum ad misericordiam)
3. Appeal to the people (argumentum ad populum)

a) Direct approach: mob appeal
b) Indirect approach

  • Bandwagon
  • Snob appeal

4. Personal attack (argumentum ad hominem)

  • Abusive ad hominem
  • Circumstantial ad hominem
  • Tu quoque (“You too”)

5. Accident (Sweeping generalization)
6. Straw man

B. Prior Course Material

1.
Propositions
1. Etymology
2. General definition

3. Basic characteristics: factual claim/inferential claim, subject term/predicate term, truth-value, ideal meaning or propositional content; relation to language, simple/compound, critical or interpretive judgment, basic building blocks or constituent components of any argument.

4. Basic types of compound proposition: conjunctive, conditional or hypothetical, disjunctive
Conjunctive proposition: p and q; p and q are called conjuncts
Conditional proposition: If p then q; q if p; p = antecedent; q =
consequent
Disjunctive proposition: Either p or q; p and q are called disjuncts

5. Basic laws of logic:
Noncontradiction/Contradiction: A is not non-A (~A)
Excluded Middle: X is either A or non-A (~A)
Identity: A =A
6. Propositions and language
7. Propositional attitudes

2. Arguments
General definition
Basic nature of argument: premise/conclusion and subconclusion; logical/temporal order of arguments; inferential claim; distinguished from non-inferential passages, explanations, conditional statements, etc.
Independent/dependent support of premises for a conclusion
Inferential claims: explicit and implicit
Indicator terms: premise and conclusion (logical/nonlogical usage of indicator terms)
Distinguishing deductive and inductive arguments
Deductive arguments: definition, types, qualities, validity, soundness, and logical implication
Inductive arguments: definition, types, qualities, strength, cogency, and probable inference
Argument analysis/diagramming

II) FORMAT

New Course Material: Fallacies (20 points)
1. 5 T/F questions (5 points)
2. 5 Multiple choice questions (5 points)
3. 10 Informal fallacy identifications (selection) (10 points)

Prior Course Material: Propositions and Arguments (80 points)
1. 15 T/F questions (15 points)
2. 25 Multiple choice questions (25 points)
3. 8 Argument analyses and diagramming (selection) (40 points)
4. Extra credit


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