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INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY
THE NATURE OF VALUE

Student Questionnaire

 

A. Instructions: Evaluate the statements below according to the following options.

Evaluative Options                                                                       Type of Evaluation

1. Strongly Agree                                                                                          Very Positive
2. Agree                                                                                                        Positive
3. Undecided                                                                                                 Neutral
4. Disagree                                                                                                    Negative
5. Strongly Disagree                                                                                      Very Negative

B. Statements

1. We never desire anything because we deem it to be good; but, rather, we deem a thing good because we desire it.                                            

1                       2                    3                     _4                    5___________

2. Food and water are universal, involuntary values for human beings in general.

1___________ 2__________ 3____________4___________5__________

3. All values, and value itself, are relative to or dependent upon an individual, culture, or species.

1___________2___________3____________4___________5__________

4. “X has value” means X is useful or instrumental in achieving some desired goal.

1___________2___________3____________4___________5__________

5. Anything one happens to desire, any object of interest at all, is by definition a value. Hence, values are created by desires, and the stronger or more intense the desire, the greater the value.

1___________2___________3____________4___________5__________

6. Just as the property of smoothness does not exist independently in the table I am touching, but only in the relationship between the table’s surface and my nervous system, so values (positive or negative qualities) emerge from an interaction between desiring beings and objects of desire.

1___________2___________3____________4___________5__________

7. The viewpoint that we can make X (anything at all) a value for us, strictly on the basis of personal desire and regardless of the objective features of X, is arbitrary and irrational.

1___________2___________3____________4___________5__________

8. Even if human beings did not exist, appropriate levels of rainfall (not too much or little) would have value in relation to plants.

1___________2___________3____________4___________5__________

9. Clean air is a basic biological and environmental value, not because we decide it to be, but because clean air is an objective reality required by all human beings.

1___________2___________3____________4___________5__________

10. Value is neither purely objective (existing independently of desire in the object) nor purely subjective (existing dependently on the basis of subjective interest), but rather a relational reality that requires both subjective and objective components.

1___________2___________3____________4___________5__________

11. Some values rank higher than other values (e.g. food ranks higher than TV) on the basis of the independent nature of reality (human nature and the nature of objects or conditions).

1___________2___________3____________4___________5__________

12. Canned sardines is a positive value (very desirable) or a negative value (very undesirable) relative to an individual subject; but food itself is a positive value for all human beings (a universal value which is not created but discovered).

1___________2___________3____________4___________5__________ 

 


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