Contact Courses Professional Study Aids Glossaries Key Links Purpose      


The Nature of Value: A Student Questionnaire


A. Instructions: Evaluate the statements below according to the following options and circle the appropriate number.

Evaluative Options Type of Evaluation
1. Strongly Agree Very Positive
2. Agree Positive
3. Undecided Neutral
4. Disagree Negative
5. Strongly Disagree Very Negative

B. Statements

1. We never desire anything because we deem it to be good; but, rather, we deem a thing good because we desire it. 1 2 3 4 5

2. Food and water are universal, involuntary values for human beings in general. 1 2 3 4 5

3. All values, and value itself, are relative to or dependent upon an individual, culture, or species. 1 2 3 4 5

4. “X has value” means X is useful or instrumental in achieving some desired goal. 1 2 3 4 5

5. Any object of desire is, by definition, a value. Hence, values are created by desires. 1 2 3 4 5

6. The view that we can make X (any object) a value, purely on the basis of personal desire and regardless of the objective features of X, is arbitrary and subjective. 1 2 3 4 5

7. Even if human beings did not exist, appropriate levels of rainfall (not too much or little) would have value in relation to plants. 1 2 3 4 5

8. Clean air is a basic biological and environmental value, not because we decide it to be, but because clean air is an objective reality required by all human beings. 1 2 3 4 5

9. Value is neither purely objective (existing independently of desire) nor purely subjective (existing dependently on the basis of subjective interest), but rather a relational reality composed of both subjective and objective components. 1 2 3 4 5

10. Some values are objectively higher (e.g., food ranks higher than TV) because of the independent nature of reality (human nature and the nature of objects). 1 2 3 4 5

11. Canned sardines is a positive value (very desirable) or a negative value (very undesirable) relative to an individual subject; but food itself is a positive value for all human beings (a universal value which is not created but discovered). 1 2 3 4 5