1.     Which of the following statements about the earliest printed books is false?

a. They dealt mainly with economic and business subjects,

b.   They encouraged literacy.

c.   Movable type was first developed in Mainz, Germany,

d.   They had an effect on the process of learning,

e.   None of the above.

2.     The Renaissance began in

a.   the Low Countries,

b.   England,

c.   Rome,

d.   France,

e.   Florence.

3.     The patrons of the Renaissance were mostly

a.    churchmen,

b.   the popes,

c.    military leaders,

d.   the common people.

e.   merchants and bankers.

4.     The frail and ugly king who began French economic and political recovery in the early fifteenth century was

a.   Henry Tudor,

b.   Charles VII.

c.   Philip the Fair,

d.   Louis XI.

e.    Henry IV.

5.     It appears that in Renaissance society blacks were

a.   valued as soldiers.

b valued as servants and entertainers,

c.   considered undesirable and not allowed in society.

d.   viewed as a curiosity.

e.   not much in demand.

6.     A major difference between northern and Italian humanism is that northern humanism stressed

a.   economic gain and materialism,

b.   Christian ideals,

c.   pagan virtues,

d.   art for art's sake,

e.    scholastic dogma over reason.

7.     Local groups in Spain that were given royal authority to administer justice were the a.   converses.

b.   liberals,

c.   inquisitors,

d.   hermandades.

e.   royal tribunal.

8.     The court of Star Chamber in England was

a.   established to resolve astronomical issues,

b.   a common-law court.

c.   under the control of the barons in the House of Lords,

d.   done away with by the powerful Tudors.

e.   used to check aristocratic power.

9.     The superiority of the French monarch over the church was the object of the ,

a. Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges.

b.   Habsburg-Valois wars,

c.   Declaration of Calais,

d.   Hundred Years' War.

e.   Edict of Nantes.

10.   Most of the northern Renaissance thinkers agreed that

a.   the Italian Renaissance had failed.

b.   democracy, not monarchy, was the only workable political system,

c.   humanity is basically sinful,

d.   Christianity is unacceptable,

e.   society is perfectible.

11.   The late-fifteenth-century ruler of England who ended the civil war and strengthened the crown was

a.   John I.

b.   Henry VIII.

c.   William III.

d.   Henry II.

e.   Henry VII.

12.   Which of the following statements about Florence at the time of the Renaissance is false

a.   It was dominated by a single family,

b.   Its major industry was wool production,

c.   It lost probably half its population to the Black Death,

d.   It was a major banking center,

e.   It was an important Mediterranean port city.

13.   The dome of St. Peter's in Rome is considered to be the greatest work of

a.   Brunelleschi. b.   Leonardo da Vinci, c.   Donatello. d.' Michelangelo, e.   Ghiberti.

14.   The term renaissance means

a.   a rise in the average standard of living among the masses.

b.   a resurgence of art and culture in the fourteenth through sixteenth centuries.

c.   an increase in the population after the ravaging effects of the "Four Horsemen of the


d.   a return to traditional values,

e.   the recovery of the church from economic and moral decline.

15.   The financial and military strength of the towns of northern Italy was directly related to

a.   farming,

b.   their wealth, which enabled them to hire mercenary soldiers to protect their commercial interests.

c.   their contractual and marital alliances with the rural nobility,

d.   protections provided them by the Holy Roman Emperor,

e.   their alliance with the papacy.

16.   The northern Renaissance differed from the Italian Renaissance in that the former was characterized by all of the following except

a.   interest in biblical scholarship,

b.   an emphasis on secular and pagan themes in art.

c.   the combination of the best aspects of antiquity and Christianity,

d.   an emphasis on the use of reason,

e.   none of the above.

17.   Erasmus advocated

a.   paganism.

b.   the abolition of the papacy.

c.   Christian education for moral and intellectual improvement,

d.   a monastic life of contemplation and divorce from the material world,

e.   obedience to church doctrine and ritual.

18.   The Renaissance artist of talent and ability often lived a life

a.   of economic desperation.

b.   of economic security through patronage,

c.    of luxury, but without social status,

d.   like that of the masses,

e.   of political power.

19.   The most influential book on Renaissance court life and behavior was a.    Castiglione's

a. The Courtier.

b.   Machiavelli's The Prince.

c.   Dante's Divine Comedy

d.   Augustine's City of God.

e.    Boccaccio's Decameron.

20.   The best description of Machiavelli's The Prince is that it is

a.   anti-humanist.

b.   a description of how government should be organized and implemented,

c.   a satire on sixteenth-century politics,

d.   a call for Italian nationalism,

e.   an accurate description of politics as practiced in Renaissance Italy.

21.   The Wars of the Roses were

a.   civil wars between the English ducal houses of York and Lancaster.

b.   a boon to the English economy.

c.   between England and France.

d.   civil wars between the English king, Henry VI, and the aristocracy.

e.   minor disputes among English gentry.

22.   Just before the advent of Ferdinand and Isabella, the Iberian Peninsula could best be described as

a.   a homogeneous region sharing a common language and cultural tradition,

b.   a heterogeneous region consisting of several ethnic groups with a diversity of linguistic and cultural characteristics.

c.   tolerant of religious and ethnic traditions different from Christianity.

d.   a unified political entity,

e.   a region dominated equally by Arabs and Jews.

23.   Thomas More's ideas, as best expressed in his book Utopia, centered on the belief that

a.   evil exists because men and women are basically corrupt,

b.   political leaders must learn how to manipulate their subjects,

c.   social order is only an unattainable ideal,

d.   all religions should be tolerated,

e.   corruption and war are due to acquisitiveness and private property.

24.   Renaissance men's view of educated women was that they should

a.   be encouraged and given an equal place in society,

b.   have a voice in the affairs of the city,

c.   not be encouraged in any manner,

d.   be allowed to add a social touch to the household, but otherwise remain subservient to


e.    not exist.

25.   The culture of the Renaissance

a.   centered on a rejection of religion.

b.   was largely limited to a small mercantile elite.

c.   was widely spread and practiced by a broad middle class.

d.   was confined to the church.

e.   affected all classes, including the peasants.

1.     Under the Presbyterian form of church government, the church is governed by

a.   bishops.

b.   the king of Scotland,

c.   ministers.

d.   an elder, similar in power to the pope,

e.   the people.

2.     Which one of the following did not come from the Anabaptist tradition? a.   Congregationalists b.   Puritans c.   Quakers d.   Jesuits e.   none of the above.

3.     According to Luther, salvation comes through a.   strict adherence to church law. b.   good works, c.   faith, d.   indulgences, e.   a saintly life.

4.     The cornerstone of Calvin's theology was his belief in

a.   predestination, b.   the legitimacy of the papacy, c.   indulgences, d.   the basic goodness of man. e.   religious tolerance and freedom.

5.     John Knox and the Reformation movement in Scotland were most influenced by which of the following?

a.   Catholicism b.   Calvinism c.   Lutheranism d.   The Hussites e.   The Church of England

6.     Which of the following is not identified with corrupt practices in the early-sixteenth-century church?

a.   Pluralism

b.   The Brethren of the Common Life c.   Pope Alexander VI d.   Absenteeism e.   The Jesuits

7.     Which of the following clearly did not support Luther?

a.   The German peasants b.   The German nobility c.   The German townspeople d.   Charles V e.    Ulrich Zwingli

8.     Overall, Henry VIII's religious reformation in England occurred

a.   strictly for economic reasons,

b.   for religious reasons,

c.   mostly for political reasons,

d.   in response to domestic public pressure,

e.   mostly for diplomatic reasons.

9.     The Reformation in Germany resulted in

a.   German unification.

b.   a politically weaker Germany,

c.   a politically stronger Germany,

d.   no political changes of importance,

e.   a victory for imperial centralization.

10.   The great Christian humanists of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries believed that reform could be achieved through

a.   the use of violent revolution,

b.   legal mandate.

c.   education and social change,

d.   mass support of the church hierarchy,

e.   the election of a new pope.

11.   Luther tacked his Ninety-five Theses to the door in Wittenberg as a response to

a.   the sale of indulgences and papal wealth.

b.   a revelation he experienced instructing him to start a new church,

c.   the illiteracy of the clergy,

d.   the imposition of a new tax on universities,

e.   the oppressive rule of Frederick of Saxony.

12.   The peasants who revolted in 1525 wanted all of the following except

a.   the abolition of serfdom,

b.   the reform of the clergy,

c.   the suppression of Luther's movement,

d.   an end to taxes and tithes.

e.   none of the above.

13.   Luther's success was a result of all of the following except

a.   his appointment by the pope to a church position,

b.   the development of the printing press,

c.   his appeal to the nobility and the middle classes,

d.   a strong command of language, e.   the politics of the Holy Roman Empire.

14.   The Holy Roman Emperor who tried to suppress the Lutheran revolt was

a.   Christian III. b.   Charles V. c.   Philip II. d.   Adrian VI. e.   Henry VII.

15.   By 1555 the Protestant Reformation had spread to all but

a.   France, b.   England, c.    Scandinavia. ,d., Spain, e.    Scotland.

16.   The chief center of the Protestant reformers in the sixteenth century was

a.   Paris. b.   Geneva, c.   Zurich, d.   London e.   Cologne.

17.   The Anabaptists appealed to

a.   the nobility.

b.   the poor, uneducated, and unemployed, c.   the clergy, d.   the intellectuals, e.   the merchant classes.

18.   Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries largely because

a.   he believed they were centers of heresy,

b.   he wanted to distribute the land more equitably,

c.   they were symbolic of papal authority.

d.   he needed the wealth they would bring,

e.   they were a burden on the state.

19.   The Scandinavian countries were most influenced by the religious beliefs of

a.   John Calvin. ,b.   Martin Luther, c.   John Knox. d.   Olaus Petri. e.   the Jesuits.

20.   A vow of the Jesuit order making it uniquely different from others was

a.   poverty, b.   chastity.

c.   obedience to the pope, d.   commitment to the abolition of heresy, e.   pacifism.

21.   Luther's German translation of the New Testament

a.   proved that the state was supreme over the church,

b.   convinced women that they had no constructive role in life,

c.   democratized religion,

d.   distorted the meaning of the original text,

e.   turned the common people away from the church.

22.   The marriage of Maxmilian of Habsburg and Mary of Burgundy in 1477 was a decisive event in early modern history in that

a.   Austria became an international power,

b.   France emerged as the leading continental power,

c.   England became tied to Spain,

d.   it set the stage for civil war in Italy,

e.   German principalities became tied to Austria.

23.   The man who wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion and did the most to internationalize Protestantism was

a.   Henry VIII.

b.   John Knox.

c.   Martin Luther,

d.   Ulrich Zwingli.

e.   John Calvin.

24.   Henry VIII of England's divorce from his wife Catherine was complicated by the fact that Catherine's nephew was

a.   the pope.

b.   the emperor, Charles,

c.    a follower of Martin Luther,

d.   the king of France,

e.   the leader of the English Parliament.

25.   The Index of Prohibited Books was published by a.   the Calvinist government of Geneva, b.   the princes who supported Luther, c.   the Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office of the pope, d.   the Anabaptists, e.   the Holy Roman Emperor.

1.     Which of the following was a motive for Portuguese exploration in the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries?

a.   The search for gold

b.   The conversion of peoples to the Islamic religion

c.   The discovery of sea routes to North America

d.   The need for more farm land

e.   The conquest of Constantinople

2.     Beginning in 1581, the northern Netherlands revolted against their political overlord, which was

a.   Belgium, b.   France. ,c.   Spain.

d.   Elizabeth I of England, e.   Florence.

3.     North American racist attitudes toward African blacks originated in

a.    South America, b.   Spain, c.    France, d.   England, e.   Italy.

4.     In the Thirty Years' War, France supported

a.   the German Catholics, b.   the Holy Roman Emperor, c.    Spain, d.   England. e.   the German Protestants.

5.     Which of the following statements about the Spanish Armada of 1588 is false?

a.   It was the beginning of a long war with England,

b.   It failed in its objective.

c.   It prevented Phillip II from reimposing unity on western Europe by force,

d.   It made possible Spanish conquest of the Netherlands,

e.   It was undermined by bad weather.

6.     The nation that considered itself the international defender of Catholicism was

a.   France, b.   Spain, c.   Italy, d.   Portugal, e.   England.

7.     Columbus, like many of his fellow explorers, was principally motivated by

a.   a desire to go where no one else had ever gone before,

b.   a desire to discover India,

c.   a desire to Christianize the Americans,

d.   the desire of Spain to control the New World,

e.   the Spanish need to control the Mediterranean.

8.     The earliest known explorers of North America were a. the Spanish, b. the Vikings, c. the Italians, d. the Chinese, e. the English.

9.     Which of the following statements describes a feature of Spanish colonial policy?

a.   The New World was divided into four viceroyalties.

b.   Native industries were established.

c.   Each territory had local officials, or corregidores, who held judicial and military powers,

d.   The Spanish crown had only indirect and limited control over colonies,

e.    Spanish colonies were expected to be self-governing.

10.   To gain control of the spice trade of the Indian Ocean, the Portuguese had to defeat a.    Spain, b.   England. c. the Muslims, d.   the Japanese, e.   France.

11.   The main contribution of Cortez and Pizarro to Spain was

a.   the establishment of the Catholic church's presence in the New World,

b.   the tapping of the rich silver resources of Mexico and Peru,

c.   the Christianizing of the New World peoples,

d.   the further exploration of the Pacific Ocean,

e.   the discovery of South Africa.

12.   The flow of huge amounts of gold and silver from the New World caused

a.   serious inflation in Spain and the rest of Europe.

b.   the Spanish economy to become dependent on New World gold and silver,

c.   the suffering of the poor because of the dramatic rise in food prices,

d.   Spain's economic strength and dominance in Europe,

e.   none of the above.

13.   By which treaty did the king of France, Francis I, recognize the supremacy of the papacy?

a.    The Treaty of Worms b.   The Treaty of Westphalia c.   The treaty of Cateau-Cambresis d.   The Concordat of Bologna e.   The Edict of Nantes

14.   France was saved from religious anarchy when religious principles were set aside for political necessity by King

a.    Henry III. b.   Francis I. C.   Henry IV of Navarre, d.   Louis XIV. e.   Charles IX.

15.   Calvinism was appealing to the middle classes for each of the following reasons except

a.   its heavy moral emphasis.

b.   its stress on leisure and ostentatious living,

c.    its approval of commercial activity,

d.   its intellectual emphasis,

e.   its approval of any job well done, hard work, and success.

16.   The vast palace of the Spanish monarchs, built under the direction of Philip II, was called

a.   the Tuilleries. b.   Versailles.  c.   the Escorial. d.   Tournai. e.   Hampton Court.

17.   The Treaty of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War,

a.   further strengthened the Holy Roman Empire,

b.   completely undermined the Holy Roman Empire as a viable state,

c.   maintained that only Catholicism and Lutheranism were legitimate religions,

d.   refused to recognize the independence of the United Provinces of the Netherlands,

e.   was a great victory for Catholicism.

18.   Who among the following best represents early modern skepticism?

a.   Las Casas b.   James I c.   Calvin d.   Thomas More e.   Montaigne

19.   The Spanish missionary Las Casas convinced Charles V to import Africans to Brazil because of all the following except

a.   the enslavement of Africans seemed more acceptable to the church,

b.   he believed they could endure better than the Indians,

c.   the native Indians were not durable enough under such harsh conditions,

d.   the native Indians revolted and refused to work as slave labor,

e.   none of the above.

20.   The Portuguese explorer who first reached India was

a.   Ferdinand Magellan,

b.   Bartholomew Diaz.

c.   Prince Henry the Navigator.

d.  Vasco da Gama.

e.   Hernando Cortez.

21.   The style of art popular in late-sixteenth-century Europe was called a.    Elizabethan, b.   Jacobean, c.    skepticism, d.   romanesque . e.  baroque.

22.   The appearance of gunpowder in Europe

a.   made the common soldier inferior to the gentleman soldier.

b.   changed the popular belief that warfare bettered the individual.

c.   eliminated the need for governments to use propaganda to convince their people to

support war.

d.   had little effect on the nature of war.

e.    dramatically altered the balance of power.

23.   The ten southern provinces of the Netherlands, known as the Spanish Netherlands, became the future

a.   Netherlands, b.   Bohemia, c.   Holland. , d.   Belgium, e.    Schleswig.

24.   The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily

a.   in the Netherlands, b.   on German soil, c.   in France, d.   in eastern Europe, e.    in Spain.

25.   The Ottoman capture of Constantinople in 1453 was significant in the history of slavery and racism in that it

a.   introduced the concept of slavery to the Christian European world,

b.   tripled the rate of import of slaves to Europe,

c.   ended the transport of black slaves to Europe.

d.   caused Europeans to turn to sub-Saharan Africa for their slaves,

e.   ushered in a flow of slaves from the Indies.

27.    The term humanism, as used in the context of the Renaissance, refers to

a.      insistence that Italian cities respect individual human rights,

b.     the belief that man was responsible for his own fate and God was dead,

c.      an anthropomorphic conception of God.

d.     belief in the perfectability of man.

e.     study of the Latin classics for moral education and insights into human nature.

28.    Communes that won independence from surrounding nobles in the twelfth century include all of the following except

a.      Venice, b.     Milan, c.      Florence, d.      Siena.e.      Pisa.

29.    In northern Italy, the assimilation of the feudal nobility and the commercial elites of the cities was accomplished largely by

a.      merchants' purchase of noble titles,

b.     nobles' joining the merchant guilds.

c.      the abolition of property requirements for citizenship in cities,

d.     merchants' construction of lavish castles in the countryside.

e.      intermarriage.

30.    All of the following were among the Italian powers that dominated the peninsula except

a.      the Papal States, b.     Florence, c.      Ferrara. d.     Venice, e.     Naples.

31.    The first artistic and literary manifestation of the Italian Renaissance appeared in

A.      Florence, b.     Rome, c.      Venice, d.     Naples, e.      Siena.

32.    The Italian popolo

a.      established democracies in the Italian city-states.

b.     desired government offices and equality of taxation,

c.      were never able to influence Italian politics,

d.      controlled the wool industry.

e.      intermarried with the nobility.

33.    By 1300, most of the Italian city-states were ruled by either signori or

a.      kings.

b.     oligarchies.

c.      elected assemblies.

d.     ecclesiastical princes.

e.      bishops.

34.    As consumer habits changed, an aristocrat's greatest expense was usually his

a.      urban palace,

b.      military hardware and training.

c.      daughter's dowry,

d.      food,

e.     jewelry and clothing.

35.    In which century did the mechanical clock become commonplace in European cities?

a.      twelfth b.     thirteenth c.      fourteenth d.     fifteenth e.      sixteenth

36.    The official attitude toward rape indicates that

a. the status of women had improved.

b. it was a serious crime against the victim and society.

c. it was not a seen as a serious crime against either the victim or society.

d. prostitution was designed to eradicate the crime.

e.      homosexual rape was a worse offense than heterosexual rape.

37.    Italian balance-of-power diplomacy

a.      was designed to prevent a single Italian state from dominating the peninsula.

b.      successfully prevented foreign domination of Italy.

c.      was primarily concerned with controlling the papacy.

d.     was critical to the economic success of Italy.

e.      led to Venetian domination of the Italian peninsula.

38.    The Florentine Office of the Night was created to control

a.      homosexual activities (sodomy).

b.      prostitution.

c.      radical elements in the popolo.

d.      the outbreak of heresy during the Renaissance.

e.      taverns.

39.    The subjugation of the Italian peninsula by outside invaders was

a.      the product of the invaders' overwhelming superiority.

b.     the result of the economic collapse of Italy.

c.      inevitable.

d.      the result of the Italians' failure to coordinate a common defense.

e.      the result of a papal invitation to the French king to intervene.

40.    The French invasion of Italy at the end of the fifteenth century was predicted by

a.      Savonarola.

b.     Dante.

c.      Machiavelli.

d.     Lorenzo de Medici.

e.      Francesco Sforza.

41.    The Italian Renaissance had as one of its central components

a.      Christian humility.

b.      a concern for the improvement of society in general.

c.      a glorification of individual genius.

d.      the attempt to use art to educate the urban masses.

e.      rejection of Scriptural authority.

42.    Italian humanists stressed the

a.      study of the classics for what they could reveal about human nature.

b.      study of the classics in order to understand the divine nature of God.

c.      absolute authority of classical texts.

d.      role of the church in the reform of society.

e.      study of Revelation for a clue to the date of the Second Coming.

43.    The most important factor in the emergence of the Italian Renaissance was the

a.      decline of religious feeling.

b.     political disunity of Italy.

c.      great commercial revival in Italy.

d.     creation of powerful, centralized monarchies.

e.      French patronage of Italian artists.

44.    Italy achieved unification in

a. 1459.

b. 1870.

c. 1610.

d. 1703.

e. 1945.

45.    The leaders of the Catholic church

a.      ignored the Renaissance.

b.      attempted to crush the secularism of the Renaissance.

c.     readily adopted the Renaissance spirit, especially when it came to art.

d.     used Renaissance ideals to promote moral reform.

e.      came to believe that the Renaissance had caused the Reformation.

46.    Castiglione's manual on gentlemanly conduct

a.      focused on ridding oneself of vermin.

b.      suggested that early choice of a profession was crucial in becoming a gentleman.

c.      asserted that real men need not learn French.

d.      insisted that the real gentleman show Christian humility and kindness toward the


e.      suggested that gentlemen cultivate their abilities in a variety of fields, athletics to music to art to mathematics.

47.    According to Laura Cereta, the inferiority of women was a consequence of their

a.      biologic reproductive function.

b.      own failure to live up to their potential.

c.      lack of economic rights.

d.      overzealous commitment to religion.

e.      creation from Adam's rib.

48.    Rich individuals sponsored artists and works of art

a.      because it was good for business.

b.      in order to please God.

c,      to glorify themselves and their families.

d.      to control unemployment.

e.      to enlighten the masses.

49.    ______'s On the Dignity of Man argued that there are no limits on what humans can achieve,

a.      Lorenzo Valla

b.      Pico della Mirandola

c.      Da Vinci

d.      Dante

e.      Petrarch

50.    According to studies of the Florentine Office of the Night, the most common form of homosexual relationship between males was between

a.      noble and noble.

b.      noblemen and manual laborers.

c.      noblemen and servants.

d.      adult men and boys.

e.      artist and patron.

51.    According to Machiavelli, the sole test of "good" government was whether it

a.      provided the necessary public services,

b.     was based on Christian morality,

c.      protected the liberty of its citizens,

d.    was effective.

e.      improved the economy.

52.    All of the following ethnic groups were imported into western Europe as slaves during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries except

a.      Africans,

b.      Greeks.

c.      Albanians.

d.      Slavs.

e.      Portuguese.

53.    The invention of movable type led to all of the following except

a.      increased literacy.

b.     the use of government propaganda.

c.      the inculcation of national loyalties.

d.     the use of French as the language of polite society.

e.      the creation of invisible publics of silent readers.

54.    In terms of gender relations, Renaissance humanists argued that

a.      men and women were equals in intellectual pursuits,

b.     the status of women had improved since the Middle Ages.

c.      men and men alone should act in the public sphere.

d.     women should have equal opportunity in marital and extramarital sexual relations,

e.      women lacked immortal souls.

55.    For ordinary women, the Renaissance

a.      had very little impact.

b.      improved the material conditions of their lives, c.      worsened their status.

d.      allowed them access to education for the first time. e.      opened up access to new livelihoods.

56.    _______'s Decameron embodied the new secular spirit.

a.      Boccaccio

b.      Pico della Mirandola

c.      Petrarch

d.      Da Vinci

e.      Lorenzo Valla

57.    Moveable type was invented in the West around

a. 1593. b. 1412. c. 1502. d. 1454. e. 1309.

58.    The northern humanists believed that human nature

a.      was fundamentally corrupt.

b.      was fundamentally good.

c.      was incapable of improvement.

d.      remained unaffected by Adam and Eve's fall.

e.      was fixed and unchangeable.

59.    Thomas More's Utopia placed the blame for society's problems on

a.      human nature, b.     God's will. c.      society itself, d.     the individual, e.      King Henry VIII.

60.    According to the Dutch humanist Erasmus, the key to reform was

a. education.

b. control of the papacy.

c. a pious life.

d.     the concerted effort that only a strong state could afford.

e.      adherence to church dogma.

61. During the Renaissance, the status of upper-class women

a.      improved.

b.      remained unchanged.

c.      improved relative to medieval women.

d.     varied from city to city.

e.      declined.

62. The term international style refers to

a.      Italian balance-of-power diplomacy,

b.      the use of movable-type printing in Europe,

c.      the spread of artistic techniques and ideals,

d.     the tactics of the centralizing monarchs.

e.      the increasing use of Latin among scholars to communicate.

63. The social group that most often resisted the centralizing efforts of the "new monarchs" was the a.      peasantry, b.      nobility, c.      bourgeoisie, d.      urban workers, e.      clergy.

64. According to the text, Thomas More's Utopia was remarkable for its time because it asserted

a.      that flawed social institutions were responsible for human corruption,

b.     that North America would one day be the site of the greatest power in world history, c.      that native Americans could be saved through conversion to Christianity,

d.      that flaws in the divine nature were responsible for human corruption,

e.      that human beings evolved from "lower" animals.

65. All of the following were aspects of the centralizing efforts of Charles VII of France except

a.      reform of the royal council.

b.     redistribution of feudal lands.

c.      publication of the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges.

d.     a permanent royal army,

e.      establishment of new taxes on salt and land.

66. In the fourteenth century, Genoa and _______ dominated the Mediterranean slave trade.

a.      Venice

b.      Rome

c.      Milan

d.     Naples

e.      Pisa

67. Black slaves were ______ in the Renaissance courts of northern Italy.

a. unknown

b. greatly in demand

c. used only for manual labor

d. unfashionable

e. little valued

68.    The Star Chamber

a. dealt with noble threats to royal power in England,

b. was dominated by the great nobles of England.

c. was the English equivalent of the Spanish Inquisition,

d. dealt with the finances of the English government.

e.      was largely staffed by converses.

69.    The Tudors won the support of the upper middle class by

a.      reforming the church.

b.     promoting peace and social order.

c.      restricting the wages of the working classes.

d.      lowering taxes and subsidizing the wool industry.

e.      opening up officerships in the Navy to them.

70.    ________'s Gargantua and Pantagruel is a comic masterpiece.

a.      Rabelais b.      Moore c.      Erasmus d.     Colet e.      Van Eyck

71.    Royal authority in Spain was enhanced by all of the following except

a. the revival of the hermandades.

b. the retention of the confederation structure among the kingdoms.

c. recruitment of men trained in Roman law into the government bureaucracy.

d. control of the church hierarchy.

e. the restructuring of the royal council.

72.    The __________ recognized the French king's right to select French bishops and abbots,

a. Concordat of Worms

b. Peace of Paris

c. Treaty of Milan

d. Concordat of Bologna

e. Accord of Naples

28.    In the early sixteenth century, critics of the church attacked all of the following except

a.      the academic pursuits of the clergy.

b.      clerical immorality.

c.      the ignorance of the parish clergy.

d.     the problems of pluralism and absenteeism.

e.      the way money changed hands when a bishop entered office.

29.    The Brethren of the Common Life represent

a.      the extent of Protestant conversions in Italy.

b.     the power and appeal of John Calvin's message.

c.      an example of pre-Reformation reform movements within the church.

d.     a typical response of the papacy to the Reformation.

e.      the persistence of Lollardism in England.

30.   Martin Luther wrote his letter entitled "Ninety-Five Theses" to Archbishop Albert in response to

a.      Luther's personal struggle with the question of salvation.

b.     the election of Charles V.

c.      the draining of Germany's wealth by the papacy.

d.      a new campaign to sell indulgences.

e.      the construction of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.

31.    In the fifteenth century, many clerics held more than one benefice, a practice known as

a.      pluralism, b.     simony. c.      investiture, d.      indulgence. e.      councilarism.

32.    Martin Luther's father was a

a.      priest, b.     minor noble, c.      poor peasant, d.     wool merchant. e.      miner.

33.    The doctrine of indulgence rests on all of the following principles except

a.      belief that God is both merciful and just.

b.     belief in salvation by faith alone.

c.      belief that Christ and the saints established a treasury of merit.

d.     belief that the church has the authority to grant sinners access to the treasury of merit.

e.      The doctrine rests on all four of these principles.

34.    The Twelve Articles were

a.      the charter of the Lutheran church.

b.     grievances of the Swabian peasants.

c.      part of the political settlement of Augsburg.

d.     the pope's rebuttal to the Ninety-Five Theses.

e.      the resolutions of the Council of Trent.

35.   In 1521, Charles V ordered Luther to appear before the

a. Diet of Worms,

b. Council of Augsburg,

c. Diet of Wittenburg.

d. Tribunal of the Holy Office.

37.    Luther believed that the church consisted of

a.      the entire body of clergy.

b.     the elect.

c.      all those who supported his views.

d.     the saints and Christ, not of human beings.

e.     the entire community of Christian believers.

38.    Luther's ideas about Roman exploitation of Germany

a.      appealed to the political aspirations of German princes. b.      were met with dismay by the ruling elite. c.      led to administrative reform in the Empire. d.     found an audience only among the peasantry. e.      are generally considered paranoid by modern historians.

39.    Luther saw the ______ as the special domain of women.

a.      church b.     home c.      public market d.     convent e.      pulpit

40.    According to the text, Catholic historians have tended to view the Reformation as

a.      a radical break with the past.

b.      a wrongheaded return to the dogma of Paul of Tarsus.

c.      an extension of the Albigensian heresy.

d.      a plot on the part of Henry VIII.

e.      continuous with earlier reform movements that remained within the church.

41 .    John Knox was influential in the Reformation in

a. Ireland. b. Scotland. c. Switzerland. d. Sweden. e. Swabia.

42. As a result of the Peace of Augsburg, the people of Germany

a. remained Catholics.

b. were able to practice the religion of their choice.

c. converted to Lutheranism.

d. became either Lutheran or Catholic depending on the preference of their prince.

e. threw off the papal yoke.

43.    Luther viewed sex as

a. an abomination.

b. inevitable but condemned by God.

c. allowed between consenting adults.

d. a good and natural thing within marriage.

e. an invention of the devil.

44.    The Protestant Reformation in Germany

a.      weakened the power of secular states.

b.     compounded problems that had existed since the Middle Ages.

c.      destroyed Habsburg influence in the Empire.

d.     helped pave the way for a unified nation.

e.      did not take root.

45.    According to the text, how have Protestant historians tended to view the Reformation?

a.      as a revolutionary break with the past.

b.     as continuous with earlier reform movements that remained within the Catholic church.

c.      as a return to the Christianity of the late Roman Empire.

d.     as primarily driven by politics.

e.      as a long-term consequence of the 1054 schism with Orthodoxy.

46.    Calvin's reform movement

a.      was suppressed by the civil authorities in Geneva.

b.     was restricted to Switzerland and France.

c.     was thoroughly integrated into the civil government of Geneva.

d.     rejected any role in the secular government of Geneva.

e.      was quickly rejected by the citizens of Geneva.

47.    Ulrich Zwingli attacked all of the following except

a.      indulgences.

b.     monasticism.

c.     the doctrine of the Trinity.

d.     clerical celibacy.

e.      the Mass.

48.    Martin Luther's first response to the demands made by the Swabian peasants of their lords was

a.      a call to the nobles to crush the peasants.

b.      a call for the peasants to rebel.

c.      a call for peasants and nobles to unite in a Crusade against the Turks.

d.     a call for the confiscation of Catholic nobles' estates.

e.      sympathy for the peasants.

49.    According to Calvin, the elect were

a.      the leaders of the Genevan Consistory,

b.     the intellectual leaders of the Reformation,

c.      those individuals chosen for salvation,

d.      all Protestants.

e.      the elected ministers of the church.

50.    The Genevan Consistory

a.      regulated the behavior of Genevans in a manner consistent with other European cities.

b.     severely regulated the conduct of Genevans,

c.      routinely harbored religious dissenters from around Europe,

d.     attempted to suppress Calvinism,

e.      included Calvinist, Lutheran, and Zwinglian representatives.

51.    The decision to burn Michael Servetus at the stake reflected

a. Calvin's hatred of Roman Catholicism.

b. the religious intolerance of the Catholic Inquisition.

c. Luther's rejection of other Protestant theologians.

d. Calvin's harsh view of religious dissent.

e. the pan-European persecution of Anabaptists.

52.   According to the text, the Calvinist doctrine of predestination led to

a.      a mood of fatalism among Calvin's followers.

b.      a withdrawal from the world of business and politics.

c.      a mass exodus from the city of Geneva.

d.     a fashion for astrology.

e.      a confidence among Calvinists in their own salvation.

53.    Anabaptists generally favored all of the following except

a.      opening the ministry to women,

b.     religious tolerance,

c.      self-governing congregations,

d.     pacifism.

e.      abolition of baptism.

54.    The dissolution of the English monasteries

a.      resulted from Henry VIIFs desire to confiscate their wealth.

b.      resulted in a more equitable distribution of land.

c.      deeply disturbed the English upper classes.

d.     was the result of rebellious activities by the monks.

e.      was reversed by Elizabeth I.

55.    Recent research on the English church before Henry VIII's break with Rome indicates that

a.      a vast gap existed between the clergy and the English people.

b.     the church was in a very healthy condition,

c.      conditions in England mirrored those on the continent,

d.     clerical abuse and ignorance was worse in England than on the continent.

e.      a majority of English Catholics were Lollards.

56.    The Reformation in England was primarily the result of

a.      dynastic and romantic concerns of Henry VIII.

b.     the missionary activity of the Lollards.

c.      the terrible conditions then existing in the English churches.

d.     efforts by Luther and his followers.

e.      Elizabeth I's conversion to Presbyterianism.

57.    Luther and Zwingli disagreed on which of the following issues?

a.      priestly celibacy.

b.     the authority of Scripture.

c.      indulgences.

d.     monasticism.

e.      the Eucharist.

58.    The Pilgrimage of Grace attested to

a.      the continued strength of Catholicism in southern Europe.

b.     the popularity of John Calvin.

c.      popular opposition in northern England to Henry VIII's Reformation.

d.     popular support of Luther in his conflict with the pope.

e.      the piety of Teresa of Avila.

59.    The parliamentary acts that removed the English church from papal jurisdiction

a. were probably misunderstood by most members of Parliament.

b. were passed unanimously.

c. made the archbishop of Canterbury the leader of the church.

d. also forbade all Catholic ritual and doctrine in the new Anglican church.

e. were applied also to Scotland.

60. The Catholic Reformation, started the 1540s as a response to the Protestant Reformation,

a.      sought to reform the liturgy of the Catholic church.

b.      sought to restore the conciliar movement.

c.      sought to initiate institutional reform.

d.      sought to stimulate a new spiritualism.

e.      was ineffectual.

61. In religious affairs, Elizabeth 1 of England followed a policy that

a.      supported the efforts of the Puritans,

b.     emphasized personal and public religious conformity.

c.      was a middle course between Catholic and Protestant extremes,

d.     favored Catholics over Protestants,

e.      imported Scottish Presbyterianism into England.

62. _______'s Institutes of the Christian Religion laid out the core elements of his theology.

a. Luther

b. Calvin

c. Zwingli

d. Knox

e. Servetus

63.    The Quakers trace their origins, in part, to

a.      the Anabaptists, b.      Lutheranism. c.      Calvinism, d.      Zwinglism. e.      Lollardism.

64.    The Tridentine decree Tametsi stipulated that

a     for a marriage to be valid, it had to be witnessed by a priest,

b.      each diocese had to establish a seminary,

c.      bishops had to live in their own dioceses,

d.      the sale of indulgences was illegal, e.      no church offices would be sold.

65.    France supported the Protestant princes of Germany in order to

a.      spread Protestantism.

b.      prevent English influence from increasing in Germany.

c.      contain Protestantism east of the Rhine.

d.      facilitate the Turkish attack on the Habsburgs.

e.      keep Germany politically fragmented.

66.   ______ factors proved decisive in shaping the course of the Reformation in eastern Europe.

a.      Religious b.      Political c.      Economic d.      Social e.      Ethnic

67.    The overriding goal of the Catholic religious orders established in the sixteenth century was

a. institutional reform.

b. reconciliation with Protestantism.

c. to combat heresy and Protestantism.

d. to uplift the spiritual condition of both clergy and laity.

e. conversion of Asians and Africans.

68.    The new religious order for women that emerged in the sixteenth century was the

a.      Ursuline Order.

b.      Society of Jesus.

c.      Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office.

d.      Colloquy of Marburg.

e.      Evangelines.

69.    The Index was

a.      a list of official doctrines of the Catholic church.

b.     a list of individuals condemned by the Roman Inquisition.

c.     the cardinals who directed the Roman Inquisition.

d.     a catalog of forbidden reading.

e.      Luther's commentaries on the Scriptures.

70.    The victory of the Ottomans over the Hungarians on the plain of ______ led to a great advance of Protestantism in Hungary.

a. Budapest

b. Mohacs

c. Suleiman

d. the Danube

e. Cracow

29.    European overseas expansion was facilitated by all of the following innovations except the

a. use of sail power.

b. caravel.

c. mounting of cannon on naval vessels.

d.     astrolabe,

e.      galley.

30.    Prince Henry of Portugal is significant for his

a.      role in subduing the Dutch revolt.

b.     support of exploration.

c.      support of the Protestants in the Thirty Years' War.

d.     opposition to slavery.

e.      rounding of the Cape of Good Hope in 1498.

32.    Before the Portuguese gained control of the spice trade in the Indian Ocean, the trade had been controlled by the

a.      Muslims, b.     Venetians, c.      Spanish, d.     Byzantines, e.      Ming Chinese.

33.    The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis between France and ______ was signed in 1559.

a.      Spain

b.     the Holy Roman Empire

c.      England

d.      Portugal

e.      the papacy

34.    The European kingdom that took the lead in overseas exploration was

a.      Portugal.

b.      Spain.

c.      France.

d.     England.

e.     the Netherlands.

35.    At the end of the sixteenth century, the commercial capital of the European world was

a.      Lisbon, b.     Madrid, c.      London. ,d.     Amsterdam, e.      Seville.

36.    In the seventeenth century, the Dutch East India Company

a.      established outposts in New York (New Amsterdam) and elsewhere in the Americas.

b.      handled the shipment of gold and silver bullion from Spanish America to Spain.

c.      took over the Philippines from Spain.

d.     established bases in the Caribbean.

e.     took over much of the East Indies from Portugal.

37.    The primary motivation for European explorers was

a.      material profit.

b.     population pressure.

c.      crusading zeal.

d.      Renaissance curiosity.

e.      fear of the Black Death.

38. The group of people who benefited the most from large price increases in the sixteenth century was the

a.      Spanish bureaucracy.

b.      nobility.

c.      urban working class.

d.      middle class.

e.      upper-level clergy.

39.    The Concordat of Bologna between France and become a Protestant country.

a.      Spain

b.      England

c.      the Holy Roman Empire.

d.     Portugal

e.      the papacy

43.    The population losses caused by the plague and the Hundred Years' War

a.      greatly benefited the French nobility.

b.      resulted in the virtual disappearance of serfdom in France,

c.      led to foreign invasion of France,

d.      led to the introduction of serfdom in France,

e.      led to the reimposition of serfdom in eastern Europe.

44.    The French royal budget in the first half of the sixteenth century was strained by both the Habsburg-Valois wars and

a. loss of feudal dues and rents.

b. overseas exploration.

c. extravagant promotion of the arts by the monarchs.

d. the military defeats of the Thirty Years' War.

e. the Price Revolution.

45.    In order to pay for the Habsburg-Valois wars, the French monarchs

a.      instituted taxes on the nobility.

b.      sold many Renaissance masterpieces.

c.     sold public offices.

d.     confiscated monastic lands.

e.      imposed a salt tax.

46.    When Charles V abdicated, his son Philip received all of the following except

a.      the kingdom of Sicily. <;b.     Austria, c.      the Low Countries, d.      Spain, e.      Milan.

47.    Philip II shared with Luther and Calvin the belief that

a.      salvation comes by God's gift of grace.

b.     church and civil authorities should destroy heresy,

c.      the state should impose morality on its subjects,

d.     the pope was not infallible.

e.      laypeople ought to read the Bible.

48.    The seven northern provinces of the Netherlands formed the ______ and in 1581 declared their independence from Spain.

a.     Union of Utrecht b.      League of Amsterdam c.      Federation of the North d.      nation of Holland e.      United Dutch States

49.    The Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre

a.      was the event that sparked the Dutch revolt.

b.      resulted in the Concordat of Bologna.

c.      was caused by the Edict of Nantes.

d.     exemplified the hatred between French Catholics and Protestants.

e.      was a mass burning of accused witches.

50.    The Edict of Nantes

a.      ended the Thirty Years' War.

b.     proclaimed religious tolerance for Catholics, Lutherans, and Calvinists throughout the Holy Roman Empire.

c.      liberated all Christian slaves in France,

d.     restored Catholicism in England,

e.      provided conditions for the peaceful coexistence of Calvinism and Catholicism in France.

51.    The Thirty Years' War began in

a.      Bohemia, b.     Prussia, c.      Denmark, d.      Sweden, e.      France.

52.    Alexander Farnese's strategy against the rebellious Low Countries cities was

a. patient siege,

b. political terrorism,

c. diplomatic negotiation,

d. pitched battles.

e.      buying off wealthy burghers.

54.    All of the following were factors in Elizabeth I's decision to intervene in the Dutch revolt except

a.      damage to the English wool industry.

b.      the assassination of William the Silent.

c.      the fall of Antwerp to the Spanish.

d.     the impact of inflation on the Spanish economy.

e.      fear of a Spanish invasion of England.

55.    The defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588

a.      prevented Philip II from reuniting western Europe under Catholic rule,

b.      impeded the flow of silver from the New World to Spain,

c.      ended Spanish attempts to subdue the revolt in the Netherlands,

d.      prevented Spain from protecting its possessions in the New World,

e.      allowed the English to conquer Ireland.

56.    Among the hypotheses offered by scholars to explain the great witch-hunts of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are all of the following except

a.      socioeconomic factors, which resulted in an atmosphere of instability and uncertainty in values,

b.      in small, tightly knit communities charges of witchcraft were made against those who did not conform, especially following the fervor of the Reformation,

c.      pervasive beliefs about women's inherent weakness and sexual insatiability,

d.     demographic changes, which caused many single women not to be under the control of men, and thus suspect.

e.     a deliberate papal conspiracy to smear Protestants with charges of witchcraft.

57.    The most significant changes brought about by the Columbian voyages were

a.      biosocial in nature, b.     political in nature, c.      economic in nature d.      social in nature. e.      all of the above.

58.    The Portuguese brought the first African slaves to

a.    Brazil.

b.      Cuba, Hispaniola, and the Lesser Antilles.

c.      Mexico.

d.     Genoa, Venice, and Modena.

e.      Actually, the Spanish were the only people to import slaves to work on plantations.

59.    Amerindians gave the Spanish

a. smallpox.

b. syphilis.

c. typhoid.

d. bubonic plague.

e. the common cold.

60.    With regard to divorce in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

a.      the Catholic church made some provisions for divorce, while Protestant churches generally made none.

b.      both the Catholics and Protestants categorically rejected divorce.

c.      both the Catholic church and Protestant churches came to accept divorce for men and women in case of irreconcilable differences or adultery.

d.      Protestant churches allowed for divorce in case of infertility of either partner.

e.      the Catholic church did not accept divorce, while Protestant churches tended to accept it in cases of adultery and irreconcilable differences.

61.    Peter Paul Rubens is best remembered as

a      a painter whose work exemplifies the sensuality of Baroque painting, b.      the leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish, c.      a Huguenot leader in France.

d.     the writer who developed the essay as a literary genre, e.      the foremost Baroque composer.

62.    During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, prostitution

a.      declined dramatically

b.     was common.

c.      catered to men and women,

d.      was outlawed in Protestant cities.

e.      was legal provided the prostitutes were not Christian.

63.    The caravel was

a.      the palace of the Spanish king,

b.     the Catholic festival occurring just before Lent.

c.      an instrument to measure the elevation of stars or the sun above the horizon.

d.     a three-masted sailing vessel developed in Portugal.

e.      a new type of light and mobile field cannon first used by the French in the Thirty Years' War.

64.    The introduction of slavery into the Americas was conditioned most by the production of a.      cotton, b.      spices, c.      rice. d.      sugar, e.      tobacco.

65.    The European attitude toward blacks derived from Christian theological speculation and

a.      African attacks on European traders and missionaries.

b.     Arab ideas about Africans.

c.      Renaissance racism.

d.      Greco-Roman attitudes about Africans.

e.      English racism against the Irish.

66.    Michel de Montaigne invented the

a.      one-act play, b.      history play. c.      sonnet, d.      sonata, e.      essay.

67.    Shakespeare's history plays, such as Richard II,

a.      exalt the English nation,

b.      glorify the classical ideal.

c. were usually set in Italy.

d. were very unpopular at the time.

e. were probably authored by Christopher Marlowe.

68.    The Authorized Version of the Bible reflected the efforts of the Anglicans and Puritans to

a. stamp out Catholicism,

b. unite their churches.

c. encourage the laity to read the Bible,

d. identify themselves with the English throne,

e. spread the gospel to Africa.

69.    Baroque art was

a. reserved for rich patrons and the educated elite.

b. intended to kindle the faith of the common people.

c. banned in Protestant countries.

d. simple and austere, lacking in emotion.

e. first developed in the Netherlands.

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