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Kathleen Beauchene

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 Expected Outcomes for Speaking and Listening Adopted/Adapted from the National Communication Association

Speaking Competencies:

The competent speaker should present speeches that reflect solid understanding of communication theory, research techniques, and organization. Specifically,

1. Determine the purpose of oral discourse

a. Identify the various purposes for discourse
b. Understand that different contexts require differing purposes
c. Generate a specific purpose relevant to the general purpose

2. Choose a topic and restrict it according to the purpose and the audience

a. Identify a subject that is relevant to the speaker's role, knowledge, concerns, and interests
b. Narrow the topic adapting it to the purpose and time constraints for communicating
c. Adapt the treatment of the topic to the audience and context

3. Fulfill the purpose of oral discourse by:

a. Formulating a thesis statement
b. Providing adequate verbal and visual support material
c. Selecting a suitable organizational pattern
d. Demonstrating careful word choice
e. Providing effective transitions

The competent speaker should use delivery skills to craft an effective presentation.

1. Employ vocal variety in rate, pitch, and intensity

a. Use vocal variety to heighten and maintain interest
b. Use a rate that is suitable to the message, occasion, and audience
c. Use pitch to clarify and emphasize
d. Use intensity appropriate for the message and audible to the audience

2. Articulate the American English language clearly

3. Employ language appropriate to the designated audience

a. Employ language that enhances the speaker's credibility, promotes the purpose,
    and the receiver's understanding.
b. Use standard pronunciation
c. Use standard grammar

4. Demonstrate nonverbal behavior that supports the verbal message

a. Use appropriate vocal elements that enhance the verbal intent
b. Use appropriate body elements that enhance the verbal intent
c. Use appropriate spatial elements that enhance the verbal intent
d. Consider using appropriate clothing and ornamentation to enhance the verbal intent

5. Apply constructive criticism to improve upon future speeches

Listening Competencies:

The competent speaker should be able to listen with literal and critical comprehension.

1. Recognize main ideas

a. Distinguish ideas fundamental to the thesis from support material
b. Identify transitional, organizational, and non-verbal cues

2. Identify supporting details

a. Distinguish between those ideas that support the main ideas and those that do not
b. Determine whether each main idea is adequately supported

3. Distinguish between emotional and logical arguments

4. Synthesize and evaluate by drawing logical inferences

a. Draw valid inferences from the information
b. Identify the types of verbal and nonverbal information
c. Identify patterns of reasoning and judge the validity of arguments
d. Analyze the information and inferences to draw conclusions

5. Employ active listening

a. Demonstrate comprehension by formulating questions that clarify or qualify
b. Demonstrate comprehension by paraphrasing the speaker's message

6. Provide constructive feedback based on effective listening principles

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